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Bilko

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Reply with quote  #16 

LOL! So i can safely inform the kids that Mr Magoo is tucked away in his Holyrood hidey hole? Whit aboot the wicked witch......is she in Holyrood too?

 

CoCo the clown would be the supporting act at Pitt street then with Pearson being the main attraction as Prince of Clowns? Thanks for the heads up hammer6 the weans are well pleased we have all the clowns on our own doorstep..................No need for long flights! Bilko


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Reply with quote  #17 

Bilko sometimes your Witt and Humor surpasses THE TWO RONNIES! and creates a lighter tone to some really serious issues.

 

Also well pleased about the long-haul flights...............Very funny indeed:-)


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Reply with quote  #18 

cheers hammer6 humour can be a good way to convey a strong message. We will use every possible means at our disposal to carry the FACTS to the public.......If that means Bilko doing his Ronnie Barker every now and then so be it.......Now get off me bunk Gobber lad! Bilko


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Reply with quote  #19 

Hahaha, Bilko you kill me sometimes with your sharp wit, great to see you back and on top form,mind ye there's a resemblence to Mr Barker if ye put yer finger over the hat!!xxxsteeleyma

Bilko

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Reply with quote  #20 

If you ever see the Bilkster in person Steeleyma you will see its not only a facial resemblance...... Bilko is .....how can i say it?........rather portly, just like the late Mr Barker. lol Bilko


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Reply with quote  #21 

Hi steeleyma, DO NOT put your finger over Bilko's hat as the SCRO might just put you at the scene of a murder!


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Reply with quote  #22 

AYE except GARY DEMPSTER and the ones he was trying to distance from this fingerprint SHAMBLES!


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Reply with quote  #23 

Hi All... thanks for the posts.  Admin fully concurs with the Moderator in that everyone should be fully aware of what they put their hands on from now on (from the fingerprint perspective, of course...)


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Bilko

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Reply with quote  #24 

Indeed admin, Bilko always used to keep his hands well out of harms way by keeping them firmly in his pockets at all times.........untill he tripped and was unable to prevent himself from rolling doon a very steep hill in the west-end....Bilko survived.....shaken but not stirred. Bilko


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Reply with quote  #25 

Is that the James Bond effect Bilko???


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Bilko

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Reply with quote  #26 

Yesshhh Miss Moneypenny.....it shhhertenly is.....(lol) 007


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Reply with quote  #27 

Well 007, er, I mean Bilko, I'm glad you survived your tumble doon the hill, and as a result were just shaken and stirred, and not hospitalised.  Time for another Martini, me thinks...   P.S. perhaps next time one is out for a leisurly stroll, one might put on some gloves instead of putting your hands in your pockets.  Then again, your DNA would be all over them.  Hmm, tricky one bruv, tricky one...


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Reply with quote  #28 

UPDATE

 

<!--{{merge}} [[Wrongful conviction]].-->
A '''miscarriage of justice''' is primarily the [[conviction (law)|conviction]] and [[punishment]] of a person for a [[crime]] that they did not commit.  The term can also be applied to errors in the other direction, and to civil cases, but those usages are rarer. 

 

 Most criminal justice systems have some means to overturn, or "[[quash]]", a wrongful conviction, but this is often difficult to achieve.  The most serious instances occur when a '''wrongful conviction''' is not overturned for several years, or until after the innocent person has been executed or died in jail.

 

"Miscarriage of justice" is sometimes synonymous with '''wrongful conviction''', referring to a conviction reached in an unfair or disputed trial. Wrongful convictions are frequently cited by [[death penalty]] opponents as cause to eliminate death penalties to avoid executing innocent persons. In recent years [[DNA fingerprinting|DNA evidence]] has been used to clear many people falsely convicted.

 

==General issues==
Causes of miscarriages of justice include:


*non-disclosure of [[evidence]] by [[police]] or [[prosecution]]


*[[confirmation bias]] on the part of investigators


*fabrication of evidence


*poor [[identity|identification]]


*overestimation of the evidential value of [[expert testimony]]


*contaminated evidence


*faulty [[forensic]] tests


*[[False confession (legal)|false confession]]s due to police pressure or psychological instability


*misdirection by a judge during trial


*[[perjury|perjurious]] evidence by the real guilty party or his or her accomplices


*false evidence of confession given by jailhouse [[informant]]s

Often, whether a case is in fact a miscarriage of justice remains [[controversial]] for a long time.  The criminal justice system in most countries is also predisposed against changing its mind, only overturning a wrong conviction when the evidence against the conviction is overwhelming.  The result is that many wrongly-convicted people spend many years in [[jail]] before their convictions are quashed and they are released.

 

The risk of miscarriages of justice is one of the main arguments against the [[death penalty]].  Where condemned persons are executed promptly after conviction, the most significant effect of a miscarriage of justice is irreversible.  (Wrongly-executed people are nevertheless occasionally posthumously [[pardon|pardoned]] -- which is essentially a [[null]] action -- or have their convictions quashed.)  Many states that still practice the death penalty now routinely hold condemned persons for ten years or more before execution, to allow time for a miscarriage of justice to be discovered.

 

Even when a wrongly-convicted person is not executed, spending years in jail often has an effect on the person and his or her family that is irreversible and substantial.  With current forms of criminal punishment, it is not possible to reverse the effects of punishment already endured; only the remaining portion of the sentence, including legal disabilities applying to previously-convicted but released persons, can be undone.

 

===United Kingdom===
In the [[United Kingdom]] a jailed person whose conviction is quashed is paid [[compensation]] for the time they were incarcerated; curiously, a deduction is made from this compensation for food and lodging that they received while in jail.

 

It was a noted problem that the [[parole]] system assumes that all convicted persons are actually guilty, and it poorly handled those who are not.  In order to be paroled, a convict was required to sign a document in which, among other things, they confessed to the crime for which they were convicted. 

 

 Some wrongly convicted people, such as the [[Birmingham Six]], therefore refused parole, and ended up spending longer in jail than a genuinely guilty person would have.  In 2005 the system changed in this respect, and a handful of prisoners started to be paroled without ever admitting guilt.

During the early 1990s there was a series of high-profile cases revealed to have been miscarriages of justice.  Many resulted from police fabricating evidence, in order to convict the person they thought was guilty, or simply to convict anyone in order to get a high conviction rate. 

 

The [[West Midlands Serious Crime Squad]] became notorious for such practices, and was disbanded in 1989.  In 1997 the [[Criminal Cases Review Commission]] [http://www.ccrc.gov.uk] was established specifically in order to examine possible miscarriages of justice.


See, for example:
* the [[Darvell brothers]]
* [[Danny McNamee]]
* the [[M25 Three]]
* [[Jonathan Jones]]
* [[Sheila Bowler]]

Other miscarriages include:


*[[Adolph Beck case|Adolph (or Adolf) Beck]], whose notorious wrongful conviction led to the creation of the Court of Criminal Appeal.

*Paul Blackburn convicted when aged 15 of the attempted murder of a 9 year old boy, and spent 25 years in 18 different prisons, during which time he maintained his innocence. He said he had never considered saying he was guilty to secure an earlier release because it was a matter of "integrity".

 

 He was finally released in May 2005 when the Court of Appeal ruled his trial was unfair and his conviction 'unsafe'

 

*[[Timothy Evans]]' wife and young daughter were killed in 1949, and Evans was convicted of killing of his daughter and hanged. It was later found that the real murderer was Reg Christie, another tenant in the same [[10 Rillington Place|house]], who eventually killed six women. Evans was first person in Britain to receive a posthumous free pardon.

 

*[[Stephen Downing]] was convicted of the murder of Wendy Sewell in a [[Bakewell]] churchyard in 1973. The 17 year-old had a reading age of 11 and worked at the cemetery as a gardener. The police made him sign a confession that he was unable to read. The case gained international notoriety as the "Bakewell Tart" murder. After spending 27 years in prison, Stephen Downing was released on bail in February of 2001, pending the result of an appeal. His conviction was finally overturned in January 2002.

 

*Andrew Evans served more than 25 years for the murder of 14-year-old Judith Roberts. He confessed to the 1972 murder after seeing the girl's face in a dream. His conviction was overturned in 1997.

*In 1974 [[Judith Ward]] was convicted of murder of several people caused by a number of IRA bombings 1973. She was finally released in 1992.

 

*The [[Birmingham Six]] were wrongly convicted in 1975 of planting two bombs in pubs in [[Birmingham]] in 1974 which killed 21 people and injured 182. They were finally released in 1991.

*The [[Guildford Four]] were wrongly convicted in 1975 of being members of the  [[Provisional IRA]] and planting bombs in two [[Guildford]] [[pub]]s which killed four people. They served nearly 15 years in prison before being released in 1989. (See [[Tony Blair]]'s apology under The Maguire Seven below.)

 

*The [[Maguire Seven]] were convicted in 1976 of offences related to the Guildford and Woolwich bombings of 1974. They served sentences ranging from 5 to 10 years. Giuseppe Conlon died in prison. Their convictions were quashed in 1991.  On [[9 February]] [[2005]] British Prime Minister [[Tony Blair]] issued a public apology to the Maguire Seven and the Guildford Four for the miscarriages of justice they had suffered.  He said: "I am very sorry that they were subject to such an ordeal and such an injustice. They deserve to be completely and publicly exonerated."

 

*[[Stefan Kiszko]] was convicted of the sexual assault and murder of a 11-year old Lesley Molseed in 1976. He spent 16 years in prison before he was released in 1992, after a long campaign by his mother. He died of a heart attack the following year at the age of 44. His mother died six months later.

 

*The [[Bridgewater Four]] were convicted in 1979 of murdering Carl Bridgewater, a 13-year-old paper boy who was shot on his round when he disturbed robbers at a farm in Staffordshire. Patrick Molloy died in jail in 1981. The remaining three were released in 1997.

 

*The [[Cardiff Three]], Steven Miller, Yusef Abdullahi and Tony Paris were falsely jailed for the murder of prostitute Lynette White, stabbed more than 50 times in a frenzied attack in a flat above a betting shop in Cardiff's Butetown area on Valentine's Day 1988, in 1990 and later cleared on appeal.  In 2003, Jeffrey Gafoor was jailed for life for the murder. The breakthrough was due to modern DNA techniques used on evidence taken from the crime scene. Subsequently, in 2005, 9 retired Police Officers and 3 serving Officers were arrested and questioned for false imprisonment, conspiracy to pervert the course of justice and misconduct in public office.

 

*[[Peter Fell]], a former hospital porter, described in the media as a "serial confessor" and a "fantasist", was sentenced to two life terms in 1984 for the murder of Ann Lee and Margaret "Peggy" Johnson, who were killed whilst they were out walking their dogs in 1982. His conviction was overturned in 2001.

 

*[[Sally Clark]] was convicted in 1996 of the murder of her two small sons Christopher and Harry, and spent 3 years in jail, finally being released in 2003 on appeal. The convictions were based solely on the analysis of the deaths by the Home Office Pathologist Alan Williams, who failed to disclose relevant information about the deaths, and backed up by the paediatric professor [[Sir Roy Meadow]], whose opinion was pivotal in several other child death convictions, many of which have been overturned or are in the process of being challenged. In 2005 Alan Williams was found guilty of serious professional misconduct and barred from practicing pathology for 3 years. In July 2005 Meadows was also struck off for serious professional misconduct and barred. <!-- what does "struck off" mean? A: Removed from the Medical Register, prohibited from practising medicine. -->

 

*[[Donna Anthony]], 25 at the time, was wrongly jailed in 1998 for the death of her 11 month old son, and finally released in 2005, also because of the opinion of Sir Roy Meadow.

 

*The [[Gurnos Three]], also known as the [[Merthyr Tydfil Arson Case]]


*Annette Hewins, Donna Clarke and Denise Sullivan were wrongly convicted of the arson attack on the home of Diane Jones, aged 21, in October 1995. Someone had torn away part of the covering of her front door and poured in petrol to start the fire. The fire spread so rapidly that Ms Jones and her two daughters, Shauna, aged two and Sarah-Jane, aged 13 months, were all killed.

:The convictions of Ms Hewins and Ms Clarke were quashed at the Court of Appeal in February 1998 and a retrial ordered in the case of Ms Clarke.

 

*[[Michelle and Lisa Taylor]], wrongly convicted for the murder in 1991 of Alison Shaughnessy, a bank clerk who was the bride of Michelle's former lover. The trial was heavily influenced by inaccurate media reporting and deemed unfair.

 

*In 2005, Lincolnshire Police Force was found guilty of illegally prosecuting over 2500 motorists who had been fined from evidence from an illegally placed speed camera, and were forced to refund millions of pounds worth of fines. Some of the victims, who lost jobs due to losing their licences, are considering suing.

 

===Scotland===
Reflecting Scotland's own legal system, which differs from that of the rest of the United Kingdom, the [[Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission]] [http://www.sccrc.org.uk] (SCCRC) was established in April 1999. All cases accepted by the SCCRC are subjected to a robust and thoroughly impartial review before a decision on whether or not to refer to the [[High Court of Justiciary]] is taken.

 

* [[Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi]] By December 2005, the SCCRC is expected to rule on whether there has been a miscarriage of justice in [[Megrahi]]'s case (his appeal [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_Am_Flight_103_bombing_trial#The_appeal] against conviction for the 1988 [[Lockerbie bombing]] was rejected in March 2002) and whether to allow a fresh appeal to the [[High Court of Justiciary]].


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Bilko

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Reply with quote  #29 
Excellent find hammer6......Miscarriages of justice are no few and far between occurances......That's for sure! Bilko
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hammer6

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Reply with quote  #30 

You will note that there is NO SCOTTISH NAMES within the report although I will UPDATE ALL of them tomorrow.

 

I am sure there will be more than an EYEBROW OR TWO raised when the ENTIRE LIST IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER is COMPLETE.

 

TIME FOR CHANGES WITHIN OUR JUDICIAL SYSTEM.


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