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Alzheimer's progress 100 years on
Image of Alzheimer's brain MRI
MRI brain scans can show the damage caused by the disease
One hundred years since Alzheimer's disease was first described, scientists are still struggling to find a cure for it, a group of experts has said.

There is much that can be done to dampen its effects, but the prospect of defeating the disease remains elusive, they say in the Lancet medical journal.

The core principles of care remain the same - support and compassion, the article says.

But scientists remain hopeful that a cure is around the corner.

100 years ago

One hundred years ago, German neurologist Alois Alzheimer described the case of his patient Auguste D, a woman who developed dementia in her 50s and died in 1906.

Image of Alzheimer
Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915)

He documented: "Auguste D suffered from constant restlessness and anxious confusion.

"At night she was usually put in an isolation room because she could not fall asleep in the main ward; she went to other patients' beds and woke them."

His care plan included "afternoon rest, early dinners and evening bowel evacuations", as well as soothing baths and alcohol and mild sedation to aid sleep, all given in a tolerant and appropriately stimulating environment.

Today

A century on, experts understand more about the disease and can spot it earlier. There is even promise of an Alzheimer's blood test.

But there is still no cure, or way to prevent the onset of the disease.

In our lifetime, some level of cure is possible
Professor Simon Lovestone, of the Alzheimer's Research Trust

The practice of care may also have changed, but the core principles remain the same, Professor Alistair Burns, from the University of Manchester, and international colleagues argue in The Lancet.

Professor Burns explains: "The main differences from the care delivered in Frankfurt 100 years ago would result from the diagnostic precision now available, the evidence-based drug treatments developed over the past 20 years, and the availability of support to educate and advise carers.

"Nevertheless, in 2006 disease management would hinge, as it did 100 years ago, on the effects of a compassionate team of professionals' working with the patient and her family to achieve the best possible outcome.

Incurable?

Professor Simon Lovestone, chairman of the Alzheimer's Research Trust's scientific advisory board, is optimistic that the disease will soon be curable.

He said: "In our lifetime, some level of cure is possible.

"While we may not completely regain what has been lost in brain function, some effects of Alzheimer's disease will be reversible. And many, many more lives will be vastly improved."

But Dr Hugh Pearson, from the University of Leeds, says major obstacles to curative treatments exist.

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE FACTS
A progressive, degenerative and irreversible brain disorder
Symptoms include memory problems and difficulty performing everyday tasks
There is no single diagnostic test

He explained: "These are lack of a very early diagnosis of the disorder and the fact that the death of neurones in the brain cannot easily be reversed. If these two obstacles can be overcome then the disease can be beaten."

Professor Seth Love, director of the South West Dementia Brain Bank in the University of Bristol, is also cautious.

He believes that because of the complex nature of Alzheimer's disease, it is unrealistic to expect that a single drug or other intervention will be effective in preventing or curing the disease.

"However, by encouraging people to make changes to their lifestyles, such as diet, to lower their risk, and by targeting interventions against the final common pathways involved in the development of Alzheimer's, I believe we shall steadily make progress in preventing and treating the disease."

In Science Magazine, US experts say many new therapies directly targeting the mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease are in the pipeline.

These include drugs to block the formation of the protein-rich brain lesions or plaques that characterise the disease.

Protection

Rebecca Wood, chief executive of the Alzheimer's Research Trust, says much research now is focused on how to prevent Alzheimer's.

"We are doing two big studies on diet. One is looking at B vitamins for lowering homocysteine levels, which appear to be linked to Alzheimer's as well as heart disease. The other is looking at omega three fish oils.

"Also there is a lot of work showing that exercise, particularly being taken in middle age, can make a difference.

"If we can persuade people to have a much better diet and increase their exercise level and keep their brain active by doing things like crosswords, that will help to stave off the risk of Alzheimer's."

With aging populations, particularly in the UK, the need to prevent and find a cure for Alzheimer's has never been more pressing, she said.

"The number of people with Alzheimer's is going to double in the next 20 to 30 years," she warned.

An estimated 25 million people worldwide have Alzheimer's disease.


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4 November 2006
BABY JOY USING EGG FROZEN FOR 13 YEARS...

A SPANISH woman has made medical history by giving birth to a healthy baby from a 13-year-old frozen embryo.

The child was born from one of six embryos deep-frozen following a successful "in vitro" fertilisation programme involving another couple.

The baby, born in Barcelona, is believed to be the world's oldest in vitro child.

The previous record was held by an Israeli woman who gave birth to healthy twins from 12-year-old frozen embryos in May 2003.

News of the birth is expected to give fresh ammunition to researchers in Britain who claim huge numbers of embryos are being needlessly destroyed every year.

Barcelona's Instituto Marques stored the surplus embryos after the biological mother became pregnant following fertility treatment at the clinic in 1993.

The adoptive mum, who is aged 40 and has not been named, suffered several miscarriages during fertility treatment before turning to the institute's embryo adoption programme as a last resort.

Last night, a source at the clinic said: "The child born from the frozen embryo is perfectly healthy. Everyone is delighted with the result."

Britain puts a five-year limit on the preservation of frozen embryos and the law says the deadline can only be extended for a further five years with the written permission of parents.

But critics say the embryos could be used either for further attempts to conceive or donated to other women with fertility problems.


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14 November 2006
MAN FLU IS NOT TO BE SNIFFED AT.

WOMEN may think it's an urban myth used by blokes to sneak a day off work but "man flu" really does exist, at least according to a survey.

The winter virus is no laughing matter as it's set to cause 30million lost working days this year.

Now men's magazine Nuts - not usually noted for their in-depth medical research - claim they have evidence that males really do suffer more.

They point out that 64 per cent of men have been off work with flu compared with 45 per cent of women.

In the Nuts survey of 2000 adults of both sexes, they found men take an average of three days to recover, compared with 1.5 days for the average woman.

They say men spend £18.34 each on flu remedies, while women spend just £12.03.

And, while most women prefer to fight the bug by staying active, 82 per cent of blokes insist staying in bed is the best remedy.

Of course, some women will believe this is just a sign that men are prone to be hypochondriacs.

But Nuts health correspondent Pete Cashmore said: "We always knew man flu was a very real, potentially catastrophic sickness."


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CRITICAL THRILLNESS...

A GROWING number of women are being affected by an illness that gives them orgasms 24 hours a day.

GPs in Tokyo say persistent sexual arousal syndrome leaves the women exhausted and victims can be driven to suicide because of its effects.

Some women have told their doctor they have had up to 300 orgasms in one day.

One said: "If a guy taps me on the shoulder, I just swoon."

Another said: "Even the vibration of my mobile phone is enough to set me off."

 

*****************************************

 

Persistent sexual arousal syndrome results in a spontaneous and persistent genital arousal, with or without orgasm or genital engorgement, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire. In particular, it is not related to hypersexuality, sometimes known as nymphomania or satyriasis. In addition to being very rare the condition is also frequently unreported by sufferers who may consider it shameful or embarrassing. It has only recently been reported and characterized as a distinct syndrome in medical literature [citation needed].

Physical arousal caused by this syndrome can be very intense and persist for extended periods, days or weeks at a time. Orgasm can sometimes provide temporary relief, but within hours the symptoms return. The symptoms can be debilitating, preventing concentration on mundane tasks. Some situations, such as riding in an automobile, can aggravate the syndrome unbearably [citation needed].

Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome can have a variety of causes. Some drugs such as trazodone may cause it as a side effect [citation needed], in which case discontinuing the medication may give relief. On the other hand, the condition can sometimes start only after the discontinuation of SSRIs [citation needed]. In some recorded cases, the syndrome was caused by a pelvic arterial-venous malformation with arterial branches to the penis and clitoris; surgical treatment was effective in this case [citation needed]. In other cases where the cause is unknown or less easily treatable, the symptoms can sometimes be reduced by the use of antidepressants, antiandrogenic agents and anaesthetising gels. Psychological counselling with cognitive reframing of the arousal as a healthy response may also be used.

Persistant Sexual Arousal Syndrome is also known by the Japanese slang term "Iku Iku Byo," or "Cum Cum Disease."


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R U Pissed? - Hangovers and Hangover Cures And Remedies


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At last women can hand over reins to men... 

AT LAST, a male pill that will change the face of contraception, is this what we women have waited for? Yes, it is, in my opinion.

The "dry orgasm" has landed. Finally, we can have sex without the mess, a pill that can take the sperm out of the equation. We no longer need to request for breakfast that we like our eggs unfertilised, and men can deliver.

 

This is an amazing advance in medical science. Since the pill is hormone-free - men will never have to worry about the varicose veins, swollen ankles and mood swings that the surge of hormones normally found in female contraceptive pill cause, although the very thought of men chatting in the office about the side effects and cycles caused by their pill secretly makes me snigger.

The new pill contains certain chemicals that prevent ejaculation, but which don't interfere with the strength of the orgasm, so bring it on.

This is wonderful news for women planning a family, as we generally are the ones having to intake chemicals which haven't always been proved to be safe over the years. Now it's the guys' turn, although I can't imagine this will be targeted at single men.

In our landscape of casual sex, binge drinking and an increase in HIV among heterosexuals, surely this male pill will be no exchange for condoms?

We need to ensure protection against the sexually transmitted diseases that are on the upsurge. So, I assume that the male pill will be ground-breaking solely for couples who have already gained that mutual trust, the people who enjoy weekends at a garden centre and have already gotten over the awkwardness of the chlamydia test.

There will be howls of distrust about men and their ability to take the pill, but that isn't what fascinates or bothers me, because women have had that control over their own fertility for years and men had to trust us.

Some women have under-estimated men, pouring derision on their self-control and ability to understand male fertility. I abhor this attitude and welcome this latest development, having been married to a man for 26 years who never did want more than one child. I agreed as I don't breed well in captivity.

What I don't understand is how men will know to take their pill at 3pm on a Wednesday to ensure an unfertilised romp at 9pm that night. Will women have to agree to sex hours in advance? Check the Blackberry, text his mobile and set the time-place-date?

That's too much pressure for me; my husband might irritate me at 5pm and therefore will be getting nothing more than dark looks, sarcastic comments and threats of divorce before his sperm-free sex has lost its take-off slot.

Women don't have that pressure when they take the contraceptive pill, we don't have to have sex to justify the tiny tablet going over our throats. We are just happy we don't have to get pregnant every nine months.

This new pill may mean that some extremely optimistic men will take it daily "just in case". The late night drinks after work will dry up and men will be going home early in their droves, to ensure their time slot is safe.

Women will now have the reins on this situation and can call their partners at work and utter those three little words "take that pill".

That anticipation of getting home in time will only add excitement to the situation; let's just hope neither party runs into a traffic jam nor gets held up on the phone chatting about parents' night with the headteacher.

The immortal words, "honey I'm home" will take on a whole new meaning.

Take when needed: The quick-action pill with no lasting after-effects

THE new hormone-free male contraceptive pill will be effective after only one dose.

The pill, which allows orgasm but prevents ejaculation, was developed after researchers noticed certain medications had a similar side-effect.

If trials are successful, the male pill could be on the market within five years, allowing men to suspend their fertility for a few hours whenever required.

The revolutionary pill would provide an attractive alternative to current male pills, which rely on injections, implants and patches, and are mostly based on hormones. Dr NNaemeka Amobi, a researcher from University College London (UCL), said: "The non-hormonal male pill could be taken when and as needed."

The scientists developing the pill say it could also be taken daily in the same way as the female contraceptive pill. But whether a man takes the pill every day or on a one-off basis, the effect on fertility wears off within a few hours.

Dr Amobi, who has been working on the project for 20 years, said the drug worked by limiting the movement of the vas deferens, the tiny tube through which the sperm travels up from the testicles.

"It is something that you can take within four hours and it will be reversible within 12-24 hours," he said.

Clinical trials are yet to begin, but Israeli tests of a drug which used the same mechanism found it 100 per cent effective as a contraceptive.

Dr Amobi's colleague, Dr Chistopher Smith, said: "It could be useful to couples who need contraception but who don't want to take drugs all the time."

If the pill goes on the market it could earn vast amounts for UCL, which will be able to licence the patent.

Annual worldwide sales of the female pill are worth £21 billion a year.

Professor John Guillebaud, a leading expert on contraception, described the development as "a brilliant discovery".

News of the pill was welcomed by contraception experts. Rebecca Findlay of the Family Planning Association said: "It gets tiring for women to always be in charge of fertility. For women it would be another form of liberation. "It's great."

Richard Anderson, professor of reproductive health at the University of Edinburgh, said the main advantage of the new system would be the speed with which it started to work.

"Even vasectomy can take a few months to become effective, whereas this is immediate," he said. "If this does work very quickly and effectively and is as safe as they think, it is a very exciting development."

CLAIRE SMITH csmith@scotsman.com

MORE THAN ONE WAY TO AVOID A PREGNANCY

THE ancient Egyptians used sheaths to protect from disease and employed fermented sugary substances to use as spermicide.

By the time of Charles II, condoms were commonly made of animal intestines. The origin of the name was said to be a Dr Condom, who supplied the English monarch with the method to prevent illegitimate children.

In 18th century Italy, the great lover Casanova favoured half a lemon, which a woman would use in the same way as a cervical cap. The lemon juice would also inhibit the sperm.

It was during the First World War that use of condoms became widespread. They were handed out to soldiers to prevent the spread of disease and unplanned pregnancies.

The first commercial version of the birth control pill became available in 1960. Within two years 1.2 million women were "on the Pill" and the development was a key to the sexual revolution.

In the 1970s manufacturers developed a more effective intrauterine device, which released small quantities of hormones.

There have been many attempts to take the contraceptive burden away from women and to introduce a male pill.

Comments Add your comment

1. Ginster's Pastie / 1:24am 28 Nov 2006

I just put a piece of blu-tack up the old John-Thomas for a drug-free effect.

Such nonsense.

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2. Pete39, Tasmania / 5:59am 28 Nov 2006

Could I point out that it is venereal disease that is the problem rather than whether or not you fancy your neighbour's arse.

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3. Auntsy, North and Way Out West / 7:21am 28 Nov 2006

Very intriguing! I'm wondering about how to approach and broach the subject of making a "test run" to prove consumption, and whether waiting for that interminable refractory period to end, still applies . . . how long before he's ready to go again?

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4. paulr / 8:41am 28 Nov 2006

how many women would trust men to handle the contraception?
not very many.

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5. Dave, Western Isles / 8:46am 28 Nov 2006

Paulr

Absolutely. I also wouldn't trust women with contraceptives either (given 12,000 abortions in Scotland alone per year).

However, it won't be long until the first drunken fumble bewteen people who don't know each other and the man says "it's alright, I'm on the pill". Aye right sonny, you'll say anything to get yer leg over!

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6. JG, Fife / 9:04am 28 Nov 2006

Well Dave, it's another alternative to "Of course I love you!"

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7. Dave, Western Isles / 9:10am 28 Nov 2006

Yup, I will worry for my daughter in years to come if this pill thing takes off and I'm a self proclaimed Masculinist and I don't even trust us!!

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8. Dave, Western Isles / 9:15am 28 Nov 2006

PS

The "of course I love you" bit worked with my missus...........insofar as it got me up the aisle before the obvious happened! Nae nookie for us before marraige!! (Man, it was hard.......and you can interprate that comment any way you want!!)

;-)

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9. stonymouse, Wales / 9:24am 28 Nov 2006

It's not what I have been waiting for. But at least it will give those strange women who enjoy whining about their (unsatisfying) sex lives something positive to talk about. It's also about time that men were forced to take more responsibility in matters contraceptual, perhaps this is the ideal. Instead of them constantly moaning about "I can't feel anything" or their obvious lack of courage in facing up to their sexual responsibilities. If men want respect then they need to begin to start respecting the fact that they have been let off the hook for far too long and women have been carrying the whole responsibility for men's immaturity and selfishness all along. Men are lazy, and this pill will most likely help to change that by forcing them into thinking of alternatives that THEY have to control. But of course, it will be up to women to monitor this... men can't be trusted to get anything right, can they Mr Blair? And yes, I am a misandrist, with very good reason!

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10. Dave, Western Isles / 9:30am 28 Nov 2006

What reason would that be Stonymouse? Why hate males? What has a man done to you?

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11. cally / 9:55am 28 Nov 2006

9# not all men are like that. Also woman


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Reply with quote  #67 

Quote:

The "of course I love you" bit worked with my missus...........insofar as it got me up the aisle before the obvious happened! Nae nookie for us before marraige!! (Man, it was hard.......and you can interprate that comment any way you want!!)

;-)

 

Don`t like this guy what a nasty thing to say shows how desperate he was to get a woman to look after him.....you know what they say behind every great man...................



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Reply with quote  #68 

hey guys

               hypoglycemia ' is worth checking out ,it dosn't seem to be popular ,but worth keeping an open for it.

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Cheers berlin: Hypoglycemia On this page: Hypoglycemia: A Side Effect of Diabetes Medications Hypoglycemia in People Who Do Not Have Diabetes Hope Through Research Points to Remember For More Information Hypoglycemia, also called low blood sugar, occurs when your blood glucose (blood sugar) level drops too low to provide enough energy for your body's activities.

In adults or children older than 10 years, hypoglycemia is uncommon except as a side effect of diabetes treatment, but it can result from other medications or diseases, hormone or enzyme deficiencies, or tumors. Glucose, a form of sugar, is an important fuel for your body.

 

Carbohydrates are the main dietary sources of glucose. Rice, potatoes, bread, tortillas, cereal, milk, fruit, and sweets are all carbohydrate-rich foods. After a meal, glucose molecules are absorbed into your bloodstream and carried to the cells, where they are used for energy. Insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas, helps glucose enter cells.

 

If you take in more glucose than your body needs at the time, your body stores the extra glucose in your liver and muscles in a form called glycogen. Your body can use the stored glucose whenever it is needed for energy between meals. Extra glucose can also be converted to fat and stored in fat cells. When blood glucose begins to fall, glucagon, another hormone produced by the pancreas, signals the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose, causing blood glucose levels to rise toward a normal level.

 

If you have diabetes, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia may be impaired, making it harder for your glucose levels to return to the normal range. Symptoms Symptoms of hypoglycemia include hunger nervousness and shakiness perspiration dizziness or light-headedness sleepiness confusion difficulty speaking feeling anxious or weak Hypoglycemia can also happen while you are sleeping.

 

You might cry out or have nightmares find that your pajamas or sheets are damp from perspiration feel tired, irritable, or confused when you wake up.


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Reply with quote  #70 

amin

           i raised £800 for this worthy cause with the donations from annie lennox,davie essex & a few other generous folk.

 

Methylmalonic Aciduria

 

 

 

 

my mate lost his little angel to this rare decease.rip  

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Reply with quote  #71 

Sorry to hear about that berlin.....but well done for the fund raising mate and R.I.P to the wee one.


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29 November 2006
YOUNG LIVES HIT BY INHERITED CONDITION

CYSTIC fibrosis is life-threatening and attacks the whole body, causing major problems for the lungs and digestive system.

The average life expectancy is 38, although sufferers can now live a lot longer due to medical advances.

It is inherited, with a one-in-four chance of the disease being passed on if both parents carry the CF gene. More than half of people with CF are diagnosed as babies - it affects around one in every 2500.

The condition causes a build-up of mucus in the lungs, leaving the organs unable to function properly.

As a result, the sufferer is vulnerable to infections and repeated chest infections are experienced by more than half of CF victims.

As well as persistent coughing and shortness of breath, sufferers can also have stomach pains and trouble putting on weight due to digestive problems.

Drugs and antibiotics can control the condition but there is no cure.

CF sufferers have to take drugs with every meal to help them digest food.

And many need their chest pounded daily to clear it of mucus.

Sufferers are often infertile, although IVF can help.


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30 November 2006
WHY WE FEEL FINE ON WINE

SCOTS scientists have worked out why drinking red wine - in moderation - can help ward off heart disease.

Researchers at Glasgow University found that red wine contains nutrients from grape seeds which protect the blood and help keep the heart healthy.

And they discovered that wine from south-west France and Sardinia, where makers still use traditional methods, are the best for health.

It is widely accepted that drinking a glass of red wine a day is good for the heart and arteries.


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Reply with quote  #74 

i was asked this question so i'll post it as it's wrote on the letter,this is regarding prison prescribed drugs.

does anybody knows what this means.

 

"  2000 nanograms per milliltre of body system

what does that mean in real terms re opiate based ".

 

 

 

 

 

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Reply with quote  #75 

Try this link berlin:

 

http://www.passyourdrugtest1.com/page6.html


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