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Reply with quote  #31 

OK Bilko, Is there a conspiracy to get me moved on here or what? and the macktheknife POST was indeed a cracker on BULLYING. 


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Reply with quote  #32 

Move you on Admin2, heaven forbid......Your hard work here is equalled only by Admin and Hammer6's input.....moved on indeed! Bilko


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Reply with quote  #33 

HEAVENS FORBID INDEED it is just as well I have Admin & hammer6 to bail me out as Magpie is literally flying post after post at me .................I was already paranoid now I am paranoid of my own paranoia! and thanks for the compliment (NOTED FOR P45 DIVISION)


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Reply with quote  #34 

Hi All... thanks for the posts.  And thanks to mactheknife for the excellent posts on bullying and the related links -  Lots of great information contained within the links, so well done mactheknife!

 

As for Admin's position with regards to bullying - I abhorr it, and will not stand for it, as I'm sure all other members wouldn't either, so let's keep up the good work, and oi - nae job stealing!!

 


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what, is, bullying, am, being, bullied, how, recognise, recognize, understand, bully, 
recognising, recognizing, mobbing, injury, health, stress
Half the population are bullied by a serial bully ... most only recognize it when they read this

Half the population are bullied ...
most people only realise it when they read this page

What is bullying, how to recognise bullying

On this page
Where are people bullied? | What is bullying?
Recognising a bully | How does bullying cause injury to health?
On another page
Why me?
Why have my colleagues deserted me?
Answers to frequently asked questions on bullying

Where are people bullied?

  • at work by their manager or co-workers or subordinates, or by their clients (bullying, workplace bullying, mobbing, work abuse, harassment, discrimination)
  • at home by their partner or parents or siblings or children (bullying, assault, domestic violence, abuse, verbal abuse)
  • at school (bullying, harassment, assault)
  • in the care of others, such as in hospital, convalescent homes, care homes, residential homes (bullying, harassment, assault)
  • in the armed forces (bullying, harassment, discrimination, assault)
  • by those in authority (harassment, abuse of power)
  • by neighbours and landlords (bullying, harassment)
  • by strangers (harassment, stalking, assault, sexual assault, rape, grievous bodily harm, murder)

How do you know if you're being bullied? Bullying differs from harassment and assault in that the latter can result from a single incident or small number of incidents - which everybody recognises as harassment or assault - whereas bullying tends to be an accumulation of many small incidents over a long period of time. Each incident tends to be trivial, and on its own and out of context does not constitute an offence or grounds for disciplinary or grievance action. So, ...

What is bullying?

  • constant nit-picking, fault-finding and criticism of a trivial nature - the triviality, regularity and frequency betray bullying; often there is a grain of truth (but only a grain) in the criticism to fool you into believing the criticism has validity, which it does not; often, the criticism is based on distortion, misrepresentation or fabrication
  • simultaneous with the criticism, a constant refusal to acknowledge you and your contributions and achievements or to recognise your existence and value
  • constant attempts to undermine you and your position, status, worth, value and potential
  • where you are in a group (eg at work), being singled out and treated differently; for instance, everyone else can get away with murder but the moment you put a foot wrong - however trivial - action is taken against you
  • being isolated and separated from colleagues, excluded from what's going on, marginalized, overruled, ignored, sidelined, frozen out, sent to Coventry
  • being belittled, demeaned and patronised, especially in front of others
  • being humiliated, shouted at and threatened, often in front of others
  • being overloaded with work, or having all your work taken away and replaced with either menial tasks (filing, photocopying, minute taking) or with no work at all
  • finding that your work - and the credit for it - is stolen and plagiarised
  • having your responsibility increased but your authority taken away
  • having annual leave, sickness leave, and - especially - compassionate leave refused
  • being denied training necessary for you to fulfil your duties
  • having unrealistic goals set, which change as you approach them
  • ditto deadlines which are changed at short notice - or no notice - and without you being informed until it's too late
  • finding that everything you say and do is twisted, distorted and misrepresented
  • being subjected to disciplinary procedures with verbal or written warnings imposed for trivial or fabricated reasons and without proper investigation
  • being coerced into leaving through no fault of your own, constructive dismissal, early or ill-health retirement, etc

For further information on what bullying is, click here. For an answer to the question Why me?, click here.

How do I recognise a bully?

Most bullying is traceable to one person, male or female - bullying is not a gender issue. Bullies are often clever people (especially female bullies) but you can be clever too.

Who does this describe in your life?

  • Jekyll & Hyde nature - vicious and vindictive in private, but innocent and charming in front of witnesses; no-one can (or wants to) believe this individual has a vindictive nature - only the current target sees both sides
  • is a convincing, compulsive liar and when called to account, will make up anything spontaneously to fit their needs at that moment
  • uses lots of charm and is always plausible and convincing when peers, superiors or others are present; the motive of the charm is deception and its purpose is to compensate for lack of empathy
  • relies on mimicry to convince others that they are a "normal" human being but their words, writing and deeds are hollow, superficial and glib
  • displays a great deal of certitude and self-assuredness to mask their insecurity
  • excels at deception
  • exhibits unusual inappropriate attitudes to sexual matters or sexual behaviour; underneath the charming exterior there are often suspicions or intimations of sexual harassment, sex discrimination or sexual abuse (sometimes racial prejudice as well)
  • exhibits much controlling behaviour and is a control freak
  • displays a compulsive need to criticise whilst simultaneously refusing to acknowledge, value and praise others
  • when called upon to share or address the needs and concerns of others, responds with impatience, irritability and aggression
  • often has an overwhelming, unhealthy and narcissistic need to portray themselves as a wonderful, kind, caring and compassionate person, in contrast to their behaviour and treatment of others; the bully is oblivious to the discrepancy between how they like to be seen (and believe they are seen), and how they are actually seen
  • has an overbearing belief in their qualities of leadership but cannot distinguish between leadership (maturity, decisiveness, assertiveness, trust and integrity) and bullying (immaturity, impulsiveness, aggression, distrust and deceitfulness)
  • when called to account, immediately and aggressively denies everything, then counter-attacks with distorted or fabricated criticisms and allegations; if this is insufficient, quickly feigns victimhood, often by bursting into tears (the purpose is to avoid answering the question and thus evade accountability by manipulating others through the use of guilt)
  • is also ... aggressive, devious, manipulative, spiteful, vengeful, doesn't listen, can't sustain mature adult conversation, lacks a conscience, shows no remorse, is drawn to power, emotionally cold and flat, humourless, joyless, ungrateful, dysfunctional, disruptive, divisive, rigid and inflexible, selfish, insincere, insecure, immature and deeply inadequate, especially in interpersonal skills

I estimate one person in thirty has this behaviour profile. I describe them as having a disordered personality: an aggressive but intelligent individual who expresses their violence psychologically (constant criticism etc) rather than physically (assault). For the full profile, click here; to see and be able to recognise the four most common types of serial bully, click here.

What does bullying do to my health?

Bullying causes injury to health and makes you ill. How many of these symptoms do you have?

  • constant high levels of stress and anxiety
  • frequent illness such as viral infections especially flu and glandular fever, colds, coughs, chest, ear, nose and throat infections (stress plays havoc with your immune system)
  • aches and pains in the joints and muscles with no obvious cause; also back pain with no obvious cause and which won't go away or respond to treatment
  • headaches and migraines
  • tiredness, exhaustion, constant fatigue
  • sleeplessness, nightmares, waking early, waking up more tired than when you went to bed
  • flashbacks and replays, obsessiveness, can't get the bullying out of your mind
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • skin problems such as eczema, psoriasis, athlete's foot, ulcers, shingles, urticaria
  • poor concentration, can't concentrate on anything for long
  • bad or intermittently-functioning memory, forgetfulness, especially with trivial day-to-day things
  • sweating, trembling, shaking, palpitations, panic attacks
  • tearfulness, bursting into tears regularly and over trivial things
  • uncharacteristic irritability and angry outbursts
  • hypervigilance (feels like but is not paranoia), being constantly on edge
  • hypersensitivity, fragility, isolation, withdrawal
  • reactive depression, a feeling of woebegoneness, lethargy, hopelessness, anger, futility and more
  • shattered self-confidence, low self-worth, low self-esteem, loss of self-love, etc

For the full set of symptoms of injury to health caused by prolonged negative stress (such as that caused by bullying, harassment, abuse etc) click here. For details of the trauma that results, click here.

what is, workplace, bullying, bullied, how, to, am I being, recognise, recognize, 
understand, bully, recognising, recognizing, injury, health, stress, bully, bullies, mobbing More information on identifying and overcoming bullying and its effects on health is in my book Bully in sight: how to predict, resist, challenge and combat workplace bullying; click here for book details and click here to order a copy online. Bully OnLine and the UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line are funded by sales of Bully in sight and David Kinchin's book Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: the invisible injury, and Neil Marr and Tim Field's book Bullycide: death at playtime, an expose of child suicide caused by bullying.

Welcome to Bully OnLine, web site of the UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line where Tim Field shares his unique insight into bullying and its effects on health and profits. Explore the site by clicking the coloured text or mauve buttons at the bottom of each page. If you have question, see the frequently asked questions page.


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Reply with quote  #36 

Hi mactheknife... again, excellent post, and fantastic links.  I sincerely hope that ALL the information provided within your post will be of use to other members - if not only to educate, then perhaps to help out someone who is, or has been, a victim of bullying. 

 

Fantastic post


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Reply with quote  #37 

I concur with Admin with regards to the post that macthknife supplied us with multiple links to bullying which I am sure will answer most difficult questions on the subject.


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Reply with quote  #38 

To mactheknife: Thank you for ALL the links with regards to bullying and your continued support for our website.

 

ferrisconspiracy : UPDATE/LINKS

 

Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD symptoms, survivor guilt and trauma caused by bullying, harassment, abuse and abusive life experiences.


What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
How do I recognise the symptoms of PTSD? How do I recover from PTSD?

Updated 4 November 2005

Please link to this page: http://www.bullyonline.org/stress/ptsd.htm

On this page
Definition of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - what is PTSD?


DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder


Causes of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder


Complex PTSD, PDSD and bullying


Mapping the health effects of bullying onto the diagnostic criteria for PTSD


Common symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)


Associated symptoms of PTSD - survivor guilt etc


New! Transformation


The difference between mental breakdown and stress breakdown


Differences between mental illness and psychiatric injury


Features of Complex PTSD specific to bullying, especially feelings of guilt


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and fatigue


Incidence of PTSD and Complex PTSD in the general population


Legal aspects of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder


Bullying causes PTSD: the legal case


Complex PTSD and stress, especially stress at work


David Kinchin's book Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: the invisible injury


Tim Field's book Bully in sight validates the experience of psychological violence


Recommended reading on PTSD | Bookshops | Articles on PTSD


Seminars on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and recovery


Links to PTSD, Complex PTSD and trauma sites

 

 

 


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Reply with quote  #39 

Hi Hammer6... thanks for your excellent post with regards to the topic of 'Bullying'.  So much useful information contained within the post, not to mention the links to other various sites, and this is essential reading for anyone who has been the victim, or knows someone who is the victim of bullying, or indeed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. 

 

I sincerely hope this information helps anyone who finds themselves in such a position, or indeed, just wishes to educate themselves in order to help others, as I know that the various links and information provided have been extremely informative to myself.

 

BULLYING MUST BE STOPPED.  FULL STOP.


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The Times April 05, 2006

Bullying is bane of our office life, Whitehall staff claim


ONE in ten government workers in Whitehall say that they are being bullied, a staff survey has revealed.

The research says that the figure rises to one in three in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, with black and Chinese employees suffering the worst harassment.

In a further embarrassment to the Government, the survey claims that Whitehall is unable to cope with radical change or tackle underperformance by civil servants.

Civil servants in key departments, including health and education, have been lining up to criticise senior figures across government, labelling them ineffective and weak.

The survey is the largest snapshot of its kind involving 21 departments and about 150,000 employees at the heart of government.

It portrays a group of workers largely content with their job but who believe that they are underpaid, poorly led and unresponsive to the challenges of public sector reform. Average full-time earnings in the public sector are £3,328 a year higher than private sector, plus a generous pension provision.

A third of employees in the Department for Education and Skills, which is pushing through government flagship school reforms, do not have confidence in the senior civil servants running the department. Only a third came to their bosses’ defence, the rest saying that they were neutral.

Only one in ten civil servants at the Department for Health, which is tackling huge deficits across the NHS, feel that change is well managed. Only a quarter believe that the department, which is sending in hit-squads to under-performing NHS trusts, is well led.

Members of the Diplomatic Service have one of the biggest problems with bullying, with 29 per cent saying that they have been bullied or harassed by line managers or colleagues, compared with 10 per cent in many other departments.

There were 115 employees in the Foreign Office who said that they were discriminated against because of their sex, and 69 said that they suffered racism. A little over half took their complaint to a senior manager, and two thirds of those were unhappy with the result.

The Cabinet Office has collated the figures, which will make depressing reading for Sir Gus O’Donnell, the head of the Civil Service. Across government, three quarters of staff believe that the Civil Service flounders when trying to deal with individuals who perform poorly. Only a third say their department is well managed.

The Cabinet Office website urged readers not to jump to conclusions on the basis of the surveys, conducted by outside research companies. It says: “Staff surveys should not be looked at in isolation to develop judgments about the performance of individual departments: these results provide data on the perceptions of staff; these need to be set alongside other data.”

Some civil servants said that they were unable to cope with the speed of reforms being pushed through by ministers. “The pace of change imposed on us . . . is way too much,” says one respondent in the Department for Constitutional Affairs.

In the Department for Education, more than half the staff think managers have failed to reduce levels of bureaucracy — a key government objective.

The surveys also lift the lid on a culture of bullying, for which many blame line managers. At the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister — a typical example — 10 per cent of staff say they have been bullied, 8 per cent have been discriminated against and 6 per cent have experienced harassment.

HAPPINESS INDEX

27% of government staff say poor performance is dealt with effectively

33% say their department as a whole is managed well

35% have confidence in the senior managers within department

25% say they think change is well managed in their department

11% have experienced bullying over past year

52% say they are satisfied with the recognition they get for doing a good job

71% say they believe their department is committed to equal opportunities

Admin

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Reply with quote  #41 

Hi Magpie...thanks for your post with regards to 'Bullying is the bane of our lives'.  Very interesting article, in particular, the 'Happiness Index', which showed such low percentages of people who were satisfied with how their employer operated in managing certain issues within the workplace.

 

Of course, the one percentage that was the exception, was the 11% of people who had experienced bullying within the workplace within the last year, as this statistic shouldn't even exist.  Unfortunately, we all know that bullying does occur everywhere, and in many cases it's not restricted to the playground but happens in the workplace too, and indeed, many other places.

 

Great post


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Reply with quote  #42 

Hi Magpie, I thought your post was most relevant in the what that it clearly demonstrated that BULLYING is not just confined to the school yard.


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ferrisconspiracy : ARCHIVE

 

 

Bullying among young adolescents: the strong, the weak, and the troubled.


Pediatrics; 12/1/2003; Schuster, Mark A.

Objectives. Bullying and being bullied have been recognized as health problems for children because of their association with adjustment problems, including poor mental health and more extreme violent behavior. It is therefore important to understand how bullying and being bullied affect the well-being and adaptive functioning of youth. We sought to use multiple data sources to better understand the psychological and social problems exhibited by bullies, victims, and bully-victims.

Design, Setting, and Participants. Analysis of data from a community sample of 1985 mostly Latino and black 6th graders from 11 schools in predominantly low socioeconomic status urban communities (with a 79% response rate).

Main Outcome Measures. Peer reports of who bullies and who is victimized, self-reports of psychological distress, and peer and teacher reports of a range of adjustment problems.

Results. Twenty-two percent of the sample was classified as involved in bullying as perpetrators (7%), victims (9%), or both (6%). Compared with other students, these groups displayed school problems and difficulties getting along with classmates.

 

Despite increased conduct problems, bullies were psychologically strongest and enjoyed high social standing among their classmates. In contrast, victims were emotionally distressed and socially marginalized among their classmates. Bully-victims were the most troubled group, displaying the highest level of conduct, school, and peer relationship problems.

 

Conclusions. To be able to intervene with bullying, it is important to recognize the unique problems of bullies, victims, and bully-victims. In addition to addressing these issues directly with their patients, pediatricians can recommend school-wide antibullying approaches that aim to change peer dynamics that support and maintain bullying. Pediatrics 2003; 112:1231-1237; bullying, youth, victims.

Bullying and being victimized by bullies have been recognized recently as health problems for school children because of their association with a range of adjustment problems, including poor mental health and violent behavior. (1) Large studies suggest that 20% to 30% of students are frequently involved in bullying as perpetrators and/or victims. (2-6) For example, in a nationally representative study of 6th- to 10th-grade US students (n = 15 686), 13% were identified as bullies, 11% as victims, and 6% as bully-victims (ie, bullies who also get bullied by others). (5)

Bullying includes a range of behaviors that result in an imbalance of power between the aggressor and the victim. (7) Such behaviors include not only physical aggression but also verbal harassment and public humiliation (eg, name-calling and spreading rumors). Indeed, emotional bullying by peers is especially a concern for youth, (8) and recent school shootings suggest that it is not physical abuse by peers but inability to cope with social ridicule and personal rejection that can fuel extreme outbursts of violence. (9)

 

Large-scale US studies on bullying and victimization have relied mainly on self-reports when identifying bully/victim groups and assessing their adjustment problems, and none that we know of have combined assessments from the perspective of youth, their peers, and their teachers. Studies that rely solely on self-reports suggest that bullies, victims, and bully-victims all share psychosocial adjustment difficulties such as depression and psychosomatic problems.

 

(2-4) Despite showing a rather uniform picture of these 3 groups in some studies, other investigations have found differences: compared with victims, bullies are more likely to manifest defiant behavior (4-6,9) and negative attitudes toward school

 

(2,5) and use drugs. (5) Victims, in turn, report feeling more insecure and lonely than bullies.

 

(2,10) There is less information on bully-victims, although this group seems to display the most severe problems. (2,4,5) Understanding the characteristics of these groups is important for identification and intervention.

However, there is concern that youth involved in bullying may not accurately self-identify and that others, namely their classmates, would provide a more accurate assessment of who is involved in bullying, and their teachers can provide important information about their adjustment.

 

Indeed, if only some youth accurately self-identify as bullies or victims, reports of their mental health could mislead efforts to develop interventions to address their needs.

Therefore, we conducted a study that included all 3 perspectives: self-, peer, and teacher reports. Most importantly, we relied on classmates to report which students were involved in bullying, because they have ample opportunities to observe peers' behavior in situations where bullying is most likely to take place (ie, when adult supervision is absent or minimal).

 

Specifically, we used a labor-intensive peer nomination methodology that is rarely used in such large studies: each student provides confidential reports on which classmates bully others and which are victims of bullying. Individual nominations are then combined to determine the strength of reputations.

 

Peer nominations have been found to be very reliable over time and predictive of a variety of developmental outcomes.

 

(11-13) For example, one study showed that peer nominations for negative characteristics (such as those describing bullying) in 3rd grade predicted psychiatric problems 11 to 13 years later better than any other traditional predictors (eg, teacher ratings, self-reports, or achievement data).

 

(14) We used our data to compare self-reported psychological distress, peer-reported social adaptation, and teacher-rated adjustment of bullies, victims, bully-victims, and youth uninvolved in bullying. We also focused on a demographic population of students who are considered at risk for violence: youth in predominantly urban, low-income communities with a high representation of Latino and black youth.

 

(15) With one exception, large-scale studies have not included these 2 racial/ethnic groups. (5) To our knowledge, the current study is the largest investigation on bullying and victimization among ethically diverse urban adolescents.

METHODS

Study Design

We conducted a study of bullying among 6th-grade students in 11 public middle schools in the greater metropolitan area of Los Angeles. All the schools were in low-income communities and qualified for Title I compensatory education funds.

 

Student eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch programs ranged from 47% to 87%. Three of the schools consisted primarily of black students, 3 were mostly Latino, and 5 had no majority group.

The study does not include students in special education, limited English proficiency, and gifted-student programs. Parental permission was required; consent forms were sent home with students in English and Spanish. The return rate for all schools was 78%; 90% of returned forms granted permission. Students provided assent. As part of the assent procedure, students were assured confidentiality.

The final sample consisted of 1985 students (mean age: 11.5 years, 46% male). The racial/ethnic distribution was 45% Latino, 26% black, 10% white, 11% Asian, and 8% other.

Data Collection

Data were collected from 11 schools in 4 school districts split over the fall of 2000 and the fall of 2001. Research team members conducted the data collection.

 

Self-administered student surveys took ~1 hour to complete. Teachers who had daily contact with a class rated students' social behavior and academic engagement.

 

The survey and procedures were approved by the University of California Los Angeles Human Subjects Protection Committee and the school districts.

Measures and Variables

Bullies and Victims

We classified youth involved in bullying with categories developed in prior studies. (2,3,5) We used peer nominations whereby students listed up to 4 classmates from a class roster who fit descriptions for bullying ("starts fights and pushes other kids around," "puts down and makes fun of others," and "spreads nasty rumors about others") and victimization ("gets pushed around," "is put down or made fun of," and "about whom nasty rumors are spread").

 

The 3 bullying nominations received were strongly correlated (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.90) and were therefore summed for each student. The same was true for the 3 victimization nominations ([alpha] = 0.87). The total nominations received for each then were standardized within classrooms. We used cutoff values from prior research to classify students into the bully/ victim groups.

 

(16) Students who fell 0.5 standard deviations above the sample mean on bully nominations and below the sample mean on victim nominations were classified as "bullies"; students whose victim nominations were 0.5 standard deviations above the sample mean and whose bully nominations fell below the mean were classified as "victims"; and students whose peer nominations for bullying and victimization were both 0.5 standard deviations above the mean were identified as "bully-victims." We identified nonaggressive, nonvictimized youth ("uninvolved") as those falling below the sample mean on both bully and victim nominations. The rest of the sample was classified as "borderline."

As with any research that uses cutoff scores to categorize participants into groups, it is important to determine if specific cutoff values affect the findings. Therefore, we also conducted sensitivity analyses using different cutoffs.

Self-Reported Psychological Distress

We used 3 indicators of self-reported psychological distress. 1) Depression was measured with the 10-item Children's Depression Inventory Short Form.

 

(17) For each of the 10 items, respondents were asked to choose the option that best described how they had been feeling during the past 2 weeks (eg, "I do most things right," "I do many things wrong," or "I do everything wrong"). Item scores (range: 0-2) were summed ([alpha] = 0.80). 2) Social anxiety was assessed with a combination of 2 subscales (12 items, [alpha] = 0.82) from the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents.

 

(18) measuring fear of negative evaluation (eg, "I worry about what others think of me") and social avoidance (eg, "I'm afraid to invite others to do things with me because they might say no"). Each of the 12 items were rated on a 5-point scale from "not at all" to "all the time." 3) A 16-item loneliness measure.

 

(19) (eg, "I feel alone" or "I have nobody to talk to") had a 5-point scale from "not true at all" to "always true." Scores were averaged ([alpha] = 0.85).

Peer Reports of Adjustment

Peer nominations were used to assess social adaptation within the peer group. Respondents nominated up to 4 classmates they considered the "coolest" kids in their class (indicating social status or rank) and up to 4 they did not like to hang out with (indicating avoidance). We included the question about social avoidance (also called peer rejection), because high social rank does not preclude classmates from avoiding a student. Nominations received were summed for each student and standardized within classroom.

Teacher-Rated Adjustment

Teachers with daily classroom contact rated students on behavior by using 11 interpersonal competence items with a 7-point scale with item-specific anchors (eg, "never sad" to "always sad").

 

(20) These items yielded 3 subscales with 3 items each: internalizing problems (sad, worries, cries a lot; [alpha] = 0.61); conduct problems (starts fights, argues, gets in trouble; [alpha] = 0.89); and popularity (popular with boys, popular with girls, has lots of friends; [alpha] = 0.79).

Teachers also rated school engagement with 6 items from the Teacher Report of Engagement Questionnaire.

 

(21) (eg, "in my class this student concentrates on doing his/her work"). Ratings were on 4-point scales ("not at all characteristic of this student" to "very characteristic"). Item scores were averaged ([alpha] = 0.89). For the analyses, we reverse-coded this measure such that it indicates problems similar to most of the other variables; we relabeled it as disengagement from school.

Statistical Methods

The differences among the bully/victim groups regarding psychosocial distress, social adjustment, and school engagement were analyzed by using analyses of variance with SPSS. Statistically significant group differences (P < .01) were followed up with pairwise comparisons (Tukey test, significant difference: P < .05).

To facilitate the interpretation of group differences in measures from multiple informants and with different response scales, all the variables were converted into standard scores with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1.

 

As standardized scores, the means portrayed in Figs 1, 2, and 3 can also be interpreted as percentiles: Values of 0 are at the 50th percentile; positive scores are above the 50th percentile; and negative scores are below the 50th percentile. Scores of 1 represent approximately the 85th percentile. The scales for y axes vary across self-, peer, and teacher reports to best depict the relative differences among the 5 groups within each data source.

RESULTS

Classification of Bully/Victim Groups

Students were classified as bullies (7%), bully-victims (6%), victims (9%), borderline (22%), or uninvolved (56%) (Table 1). Boys were twice as likely as girls to be classified as bullies (10% vs 5%), > 3 times as likely to be classified as bully-victims (10% vs 3%), and almost twice as likely to be classified as victims (12% vs 7%; Table 1).

Type of involvement also varied by race/ethnicity (Table 1). Black and other youth were most likely and Asian least likely to be classified as bullies (11% and 10% vs 3%, respecetively). Other and white were more likely and Latino least likely to be classified as victims (13% and 12% vs 7%, respectively). Black youth were most likely to be classified as bully-victims (10%).

Self-Reported Psychological Distress

Significant differences appeared on all psychological adjustment indicators, with bullies reporting the lowest and victims reporting the highest levels of depression, social anxiety, and loneliness (Fig 1). Bully-victims generally fell in between, with elevated levels of depression and loneliness but average levels of social anxiety.

Peer-Rated Adjustment

Bullies were regarded as the highest and victims the lowest in social status (Fig 2). However, classmates avoided both bullies and victims and especially bully-victims more than they avoided other classmates.

Teacher-Rated School Engagement and Social Adjustment

The 5 groups also showed differences in teacher ratings of school engagement and social adjustment (Fig 3). Consistent with peer nominations (Pearson r = 0.37; P < .001 between teacher ratings of popularity and peer nominations of social status), teacher ratings indicated that bullies were most popular and victims were least popular. Teachers also rated victims as displaying more internalizing problems (eg, sadness or anxiety) than bullies or bully-victims (but not more than the uninvolved). Teachers ranked bully-victims as manifesting by far the most and uninvolved students the least conduct problems. All 3 groups of students involved with bullying, especially bully-victims, were rated as more disengaged in school than their classmates.

Multivariate Analyses

Multivariate analyses of covariance predicting each of the measures of self-, peer-, and teacher-rated adjustment by controlling for gender and race/ethnicity differences were conducted. The results were essentially identical to the bivariate analyses.

Sensitivity Analyses

We conducted 2 sets of sensitivity analyses by changing the 0.5 cutoff for the standard deviation above the mean cutoff to 0.75 and 1.00, respectively. Although these modifications necessarily identified smaller groups more intensely involved in bullying, the pattern of differences across the 5 groups was the same for all analyses with no evidence of the findings being dependent on the specific cutoff criterion.

DISCUSSION

Among youth involved in bullying in a community sample of ethnically diverse middle school students, we found that bullies manifest the fewest number of adjustment problems. Specifically, bullies are psychologically stronger than classmates not involved in bullying, and they enjoy high social status among their classmates (although the classmates tend to avoid their company). Victims, on the other hand, suffer not only emotional distress but also social marginalisation (ie, classmates avoid them, and they have low social status).

 

Finally, those who both bully and get bullied (ie, bully-victims) are especially troubled. They are by far the most socially ostracized by their peers, most likely to display conduct problems, and least engaged in school, and they also report elevated levels of depression and loneliness.

Our findings about bullies are distinct from the findings in some studies that have reported that bullies tend to be depressed and have psychological distress. (2-4) However, these studies have depended on self-reports of being a bully, and it is unlikely that bullies as a group provide accurate self-reports of how they treat others.

 

Instead, we used the well-validated peer nomination method to collect reports from classmates about the roles students play. This approach provided identification of bullies (and victims) based on a consensus of a large group of students who know and observe all students in a class.

Whereas prior studies had the unexpected finding of a fairly uniform psychological and social picture of bullies and victims, (2-4) we found that despite some common characteristics (eg, school disengagement problems), these groups are distinct, which has implications for identifying them and intervening. For example, although prior studies could be interpreted as indicating a need to focus on depression in addressing the needs of bullies, this approach may be useful only for the subset most likely to self-identify, not for those who do not admit to bullying.

Although the use of peer nominations to classify youth into bully, victim, and bully-victim groups is a strength of the study, there can be biases in the manner respondents identify classmates as bullies or victims. Who is reported as a bully or victim may be determined not only by individuals' behavior but also by the biases of the observer.

 

(22) For example, the behaviors of 2 classmates acting in the same way may be reported differently by other students depending on the implicit stereotype associated with the 2 students' social category (eg, race or gender). Future studies are needed to help us better understand the conditions under which racial and gender biases are most likely to emerge. How such biases may influence adolescent behavior, psychological well-being, and school functioning is another question for future research.

The superior mental health (lack of psychological stress) of bullies documented in the current study can in part be understood in light of the social prestige that they enjoy among their classmates. Developmental research shows that in early adolescence, social status is one of the strongest predictors of positive self-views and psychological well-being.

 

(23,24) Hence, it is likely that teenaged bullies do not feel depressed, anxious, or lonely because they have high social status within their peer collective. It is nevertheless important to keep in mind that, despite bullies' high social status, classmates would rather not spend time with them. Thus, it may be that the social prestige of bullies is motivated in part by fear.

Regardless of the reasons behind the favorable social ranking of bullies, the high status imposes a challenge for addressing bullying problems. When bullies are considered the "coolest," bullying behavior is encouraged. This finding underscores the importance of addressing bullying as a systemic problem that involves the whole peer collective. Comprehensive, school-wide antibullying programs.

 

(25,26) aim to change peer dynamics that encourage and maintain bullying by raising the awareness of how bystanders contribute to the problem of bullying.

 

(27) Perspective-taking exercises (including videotaped vignettes of typical incidents) depict the way in which bystanders encourage bullies. These same exercises may be useful for increasing empathy for victims such that students become more conscious of the plight of the victim.

 

(28)The current findings indicate that groups of teens who report elevated psychological distress are the same ones who others report as having trouble fitting in or being accepted by their peers. This finding underscores the importance of also understanding the social plight of victims: they are not only targeted by bullies but also ostracized by many of their classmates. To address the adjustment difficulties of victims, it may be that psychological services that focus solely on the emotional problems are inadequate; efforts to deal with the social issues are also needed.

 

This means that clinicians working outside of the school, who might be most qualified to provide such individually focused psychological services, may have limited capacity to intervene. The lack of connections between clinicians, who see youth outside of school, and teachers and other school staff, who see youth in school, is a problem that complicates interventions. One of the challenges with bullying among school children therefore is to try to build and maintain links between clinicians and school staff.

Compared with bullies and victims, the bully-victim group seems to have the worst of both worlds and a unique risk profile. Their high levels of social avoidance, conduct problems, and school difficulties suggest that they are a particularly high-risk group. (2, 5) Indeed, previous research indicates that bully-victims are most vulnerable to both concurrent and subsequent psychiatric disorders.

 

(4) Victims who bully others also best fit the profiles of seriously violent offenders. For example, a recent in-depth case analysis of 37 intended and conducted school shootings revealed that ~2/3 of the alleged perpetrators had been bullied by their peers, and most of them also displayed signs of violent ideation (eg, self-destructive thoughts and interest in violent games and films). (8)

Although our cross-sectional data do not show whether adjustment problems cause bullying or victimization, or vice versa, or whether some other characteristic such as underlying psychopathology causes both, other studies have suggested that there are long-term implications. Several longitudinal studies suggest that bullying is a risk factor for subsequent conduct problems including violent behavior and that victimisation is predictive of not only current but also subsequent mental health problems. (10)

Bullying does not affect just those directly involved, but it can affect all youth who witness bullying. In a recent national survey, the highest percentage (68%) of 12- to 15-year-old children rated teasing and bullying as a "big problem" for people their age. (30) In light of such statistics, it is clear that problems associated with bullying and victimization are not problems affecting only a small proportion of youth. Moreover, based on the current findings, it seems that problems associated with bullying are likely to cut across race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and culture.

As recommended by the American Medical Association, (31) pediatricians, school psychologists, and other clinicians need additional information about bullies, victims, and their associated health problems. Because young adolescents are reluctant to talk about bullying, health professionals might at times detect symptoms of bullying and victimization before the youth's role in bullying becomes known. However, symptoms may be spotted more easily for some of the groups (ie, bully-victims) than for others.

 

For example, we found that victims manifest quiet signs of psychological distress that may not be detected easily by teachers. Despite the relatively high self-reports of psychological distress, teachers did not rate victims as having significantly more internalizing problems than students who are uninvolved in bullying. Hence, public-awareness campaigns that not only inform professionals and parents about bullying but also encourage youth to speak out about their problems are needed.

Teachers play a key role in preventing and intervening with bullying at school, yet they receive little if any help or training in how to effectively deal with such problems. They lack information, and they are reluctant to intervene when they witness bullying. Although teachers have the benefit of understanding the social context of bullying, they do not necessarily know how to best use this knowledge to intervene.

 

In school settings, bullying and victimisation are often considered as personal problems of individual youth rather than problems requiring a collective response. Therefore, it is essential 1) to educate teachers about ways in which schools can alter social norms toward bullying, 2) to assist them to intervene effectively with incidents of bullying, and 3) to work together with clinicians to deal with the symptoms of bullying and victimisation.


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Reply with quote  #44 

"Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In small places, close to home - so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world.

 

Yet they are the world of the individual person; the neighborhoods they live in; the school or college they attend, the factory, school, or office where they work.

 

Such are the places where every man, woman, and child seeks equal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity without fear,discrimination, and bullying. 

 

Unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere. Without concerted citizen action to uphold them close to home, we shall look in vain for progress in the larger world."



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16 April 2006
 
DEGRADED.. BY THE COPS
EXCLUSIVE Jailer was illegally strip-searched by police officers after prisoner claimed his mobile phone had been stolen
By Billy Paterson

A JAILER who was stripped and subjected to an intimate body search by police looking for a prisoner's stolen mobile has won a battle for compensation.

Joseph Logue sued Tayside Police Chief Constable John Vine for £25,000 after going through a "humiliating and degrading" ordeal that left him in tears and subject to taunts by workmates.

Logue, who has accepted a four-figure out-of-court settlement, said he suffered from flashbacks.

He claimed he had become "the butt of all jokes" among colleagues, forcing him to quit the job.

Logue, 44, of Dundee, said: "I was humiliated. To be treated that way is inhumane and barbaric.

"Now I look at the police in a completely different light."

 

The civilian turnkey was helping PC Robert Key transfer prisoners from Perth Prison to Dundee and Arbroath sheriff courts.

The last prisoner, who was dropped off at Arbroath, claimed his mobile phone had been stolen from the secured bags in the police van.

After a search failed to recover the phone, Logue, employed by Tayside Police in Dundee's Bell Street, was detained in connection with the alleged theft.

His writ states: "PC Key reported the missing mobile phone to Police Inspector Derek Fagan on arrival back at police HQ.

"Both PC Key and Logue gave statements to Charge Room Sergeant Stephen Main. Logue was due to finish his shift at 3pm but he was not allowed to leave the premises. He was not arrested or detained.

"He was told that he was to be subject to a strip search involving intimate examination of his body cavities.

"He was advised that if he did not consent then it would be done forcibly and officers were standing there wearing surgical gloves. The pursuer felt intimidated. To avoid being violated by force, he agreed to be searched."

Tayside Police said last night: "We regret any inconvenience or upset caused to the individual concerned and the matter has now been fully settled."

The legal position

LEADING criminal lawyer Tony Graham said last night: "The police would not have any power to search this man unless it was in his contract of employment.

"For instance, prison officers have it in their contract that they submit to searches as required.

"If someone has been arrested, charged and kept in custody, the police have powers to strip search.

"If someone is charged but not been taken into custody, police are not entitled to search them."


The Boys in Blue up to their usual Bullying Tactics          

 

 

 

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